Friday, December 27, 2019

Headache, its symptoms, and treatment

A glaring factor for headaches are brain injuries. The nature of the ailment in some cases also lies with violations of the rest of the systems and functional capabilities of the body. Headache requires a special approach to diagnosis – the attending physician carefully examines the symptoms and then prescribes treatment.

Probable Causes of Headache

Each person, at least once in his life, felt discomfort arising from a headache. The poor health associated with this ailment appears in combination with acute respiratory colds, viral infections and the flu.

The sources of headache are:
  • weather dependence (reaction to changes in weather conditions);
  • sleep failure
  • stressful condition;
  • overeating and lack of appetite;
  • prolonged stay of the body in a hot environment;
  • hypothermia;
  • excessive physical activity;
  • bad habits (smoking or alcohol abuse).
Other equally important provocateurs of headache are oxygen starvation of the brain and its membranes, pathological deviations of the neck or head. As a rule, head cramps are in many cases the only clear symptom of other ailments.

Irritation of the receptor of the meninges is associated with irritation of the autonomic system of the brain and several types of nerves (trigeminal, vagus, glossopharyngeal, cutaneous), spinal root in the neck and facial muscles. Failure of the nerve endings, irritation of the neurovascular system of the skull leads to the manifestation of very severe headaches.

The factors causing pain in the head come in a variety of nature and manifestations, duration and frequency. An ailment can overtake a person in different areas of the head: the back of the head, whiskey or crown. Headache sometimes occurs on its own, in other cases it is supplemented by other symptoms of poor health. Headache is often accompanied by loss of consciousness, nausea, vomiting, irregular blood pressure. Vision problems are also directly related to this ailment. To make an accurate diagnosis, the doctor should take into account where the headache is located , its duration, the accompanying symptoms and frequency, in order to prescribe an effective treatment.

Occasionally, absolutely healthy people face a headache. If a shortterm attack has acquired great  intensity, repeatability, uniformity, you need to consult a doctor for advice. This condition signals you that you have a serious illness.

International Classification of Headache

  • due to physical stress;
  • due to external compression of the head;
  • cluster;
  • with migraine;
  • after increased sexual activity;
  • without structural damage to brain tissue;
  • resulting from head injuries of the head;
  • as a result of vegetative-vascular diseases,
  • in connection with the reception / cancellation of the use of medications;
  • as a symptom of a disease of intracranial structures;
  • with bacterial infections;
  • due to metabolic disorders;
  • due to the pathology of the cranial nerve plexuses.
If a severe headache is a symptom of another disease, this is a secondary ailment. It complements the problems associated with injuries, intracranial diseases, infections, intoxications, metabolic disorders, unhealthy vessels. Headache can occur due to lifethreatening illnesses (with meningitis,   brain tumors, subarachnoid hemorrhages, strokes). Secondary headache is caused by abuse of caffeinated drinks and refusal to take pain medication. Doctors often diagnose a hybrid type of pain: overstrain plus a secondary symptom in the form of migraine.

Headache as a symptom of other ailments

In vascular diseases, headache is a key symptom. Consider this for the timely diagnosis of vegetative-vascular dystonia, hypertension, transient ischemic attack, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hematoma, vascular malformation, venous discirculation, arteritis, stroke.

With vegetative-vascular dystonia, a headache is accompanied by loss of consciousness, nausea, jumps in blood pressure, and neurotic disorders. Climate change or nervous tension, emotional decline can exacerbate the symptom.

Hypertension causes painful cramps with tinnitus, flickering in the eyes, nausea, pain in the heart. Often a headache in the neck. Venous dysfunction is supplemented by a headache at certain hours of the day – in the morning and in the evening. The symptom is supplemented by feelings of heaviness and pressure, the pain becomes dull and bilateral in nature.

If you feel a sharp intense pain – this may be a sign of an acute stroke. Severe pain with a pulsation near the temple indicates the manifestation of your temporal arteritis. Vascular problems are also accompanied by pain in the head and impaired thinking.

Some head injuries cause pain in the head. For example, acute damage to the cranial structure of the head always causes this symptom, taking into account the intensity and severity. Intolerable pain is accompanied by nausea and vomiting. Hematomas cause delayed spasms in the foci of occurrence.

Headache is always a key symptom of different types of infections (meningitis, encephalitis and colds). It is supplemented by hanging body temperature, heaviness in the head, a feeling of compression of the eyes and ears, nausea and vomiting in acute infections.

Aching pains occur in the head due to a spectrum of eye diseases: glaucoma, strabismus, and refractive errors. Dull headache with intraocular discomfort, a feeling of heaviness can cause a lot of problems to the patient. Diseases of the ear and sinus appendages, teeth are also accompanied by head cramps. The center of pain will be located in the area of the inflammatory process.

Cranial neuralgia is also accompanied by pain in the head. Attacks are quite strong, with a sharp tingling sensation. Occur only in the process of brushing your teeth, during communication, chewing food, in contact with cold food. Between these manipulations the attacks recede.

Various pathologies of the cervical spine also can not do without a headache.

Degenerative-dystrophic disease, discogenic radicular symptoms, instability of the vertebrae cause cramping in the back of the head and head of the head, in the neck. The pain is severe, dull and prolonged. It manifests itself during turning the head and tilting it forward.

Oncological ailments, renal failure and diabetes.

With oncological diseases, renal failure and diabetes, pain in the head is a signal of metabolic imbalance.

Headaches for infectious diseases

Cold viruses and other infectious diseases are accompanied by the harmful effects of toxins from the life of microbes. This causes a headache amid high fever, body aches, chills, and vision problems. You can defeat a headache with the help of anti-cold medicines with an antipyretic effect.

Intense head cramps with a cold can be a sign of a very serious illness called meningitis. Timely diagnosis of meningococcal infection will help to avoid fatal damage to the meninges. Some forms of meningitis can lead to the death of the patient in just a few hours.

Examination of the patient

In case of headache, the patient must undergo a large number of studies from different specialists: visit a therapist, an ophthalmologist, a neurologist, a neurosurgeon, and even an infectious diseases specialist if necessary. A full examination is prescribed taking into account the individual situation of each patient. Diagnostic basis:
  • dopplerography;
  • electroencephalography;
  • computed tomography of the head;
  • examination of the thyroid gland;
  • examination of the cervical spine.
The patient also needs to pass some tests: a general blood test and sugar, lipid profile.

Headache – treatment

Therapy to eliminate a headache is prescribed by the attending physician. The results of a full diagnosis of the body will prompt an accurate diagnosis for the selection of an effective method of eliminating severe headache. To prevent the headache from manifesting so strongly in the patient, the symptoms are carefully studied and only then individual treatment is selected. The method is influenced by several factors:
  • type of;
  • the severity of the manifestation of the disease;
  • additional nuances (for example, age and the presence of other diseases).
The treatment of acute pain is possible when taking drugs of the analgesic group (ibuprofen, paracetamol) and combined drugs containing caffeine and antispasmodics (pentalgin, panadol, noshpalgin, solpadein, imet). A variety of capsules, pops in the form of tablets and sachets with soluble powders have been shown to be effective in treating acute manifestations of headache. They can be taken on their own for a short time, long-term use is fraught with addiction to such drugs. Be sure to consult your doctor to find out the cause of the pain, then to eliminate them. The headache treatment course consists of the elements of physiotherapy:
  • electrophoresis procedures;
  • darsonvalization, including an additional cervical-collar zone;
  • acupuncture;
  • massage;
  • procedures in water.
No less favorably affects the stay in the resort type resort.

Drug therapy includes taking:
  • gabapentins;
  • valproate;
  • muscle relaxants;
  • sedatives;
  • Vitamin B
  • diuretics;
  • venotonic;
  • antioxidants;
  • vascular drugs;
  • neuroprotective agents.
Each doctor, after making the correct diagnosis, will prescribe an individual headache treatment. Listen to his explanations of how to use drugs for prevention and to eliminate sharp and sudden pain.

Do not forget that self-medication with frequent headaches will only harm your body. The cause of the deterioration may be the presence of a tumor in the head, in which case the treatment pills cannot act as a panacea – a surgical operation will be needed. Excessive use of painkillers is detrimental to the functionality of the digestive tract, liver and kidneys.

An example of a specialist consultation with a patient

Patient: What is an abusal headache?
Doctor: An abusal headache is a cramp that occurs due to the frequent and chronic use of drugs with anesthetic effect (aspirin, antiinflammatory drugs of the non-steroid   group, ergotamines and barbiturates). The body quickly gets used to the drugs that the patient takes chronically – the pain sensation quenches at a lower rate. The patient has to gradually increase the dose of the drug, but the effect of this does not improve. An ordinary headache becomes abuser – it can disturb a person for two weeks per month. If you stop taking painkillers, then the cramps will increase and then stop about four weeks after the drug is completely abandoned. For the effectiveness of treatment of an ailment, the use of a drug in an outpatient or inpatient setting is canceled. Instead, symptomatic drugs are selected to relieve side effects. Experts do not recommend the abuse of such drugs for prevention.

Patient: how to suppress pain in the head with a cold?
Doctor: taking instant powder medicines (for example, fervex, coldrex and soladenin) will help with this. Rubbing the temples and forehead with freshly cut lemon also helps. Multivitamin complexes, which can be purchased at a pharmacy without a prescription, and a decoction of hawthorn improve the condition.

Patient: why are some manifestations of a headache dangerous?
Doctor: in particular, headache, which is accompanied by nausea and vomiting, is considered the most dangerous. Especially should vomit alert, after which it does not become easier in the head and in the body as a whole. It is also worth paying attention to the following nuances:

  • if the cramps do not decrease after the use of antipyretic, analgesics and analgesic drugs;
  • when due to a headache it is supplemented by unpleasant sensations in the neck and this makes it difficult to raise the head in a prone position from the pillow;
  • if the pain syndrome was accompanied by loss of consciousness or hallucinogenic visions;
  • the appearance of a rash with meningococcal infection (thus hemorrhage in the skin occurs). Small spots on the buttocks, abdomen, lower leg, and in other parts of the body acquire a dark red color, the rash does not protrude at the level of the upper layer of the skin and does not whiten when put pressure on it with a finger.
Patient: how to treat a special headache such as migraine?
Doctor: in the treatment of migraine and cluster pain, specific drugs are used that act on specific serotonin receptors in the brain. Folk methods will also help relieve seizures – applying a cold bandage to the head, massage and manual exposure to biologically active points.

Patient: how do sleep conditions affect headache, can sleep provoke its appearance?
Doctor: you need to monitor the sleep regimen, but do not pour it. For many people, pain in the head area is quenched by night rest of the body, especially after prolonged physical and mental stress. However, if you regularly pour it in the morning – there is a threat of the duration of the headache after waking up. If a person is not accustomed to sleep during the day, do not force yourself to force and abuse this habit. Prolonged daytime sleep can lead to migraines. You need to try to sleep on your back. Inconvenient posture causes spasm of the neck muscles and provokes a headache.

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