Tuesday, December 31, 2019

15 health problems due to sugar

An ordinary person eats 22 teaspoons of sugar every day. This leads to very unpleasant consequences in terms of health: overweight, heart disease, impaired susceptibility to insulin and leptin, memory impairment. And this is not a complete list.

In 1957, John Yudkin, a British nutritionist professor, tried to prove that the main culprit in heart disease and other chronic diseases is sugar, not fat, as is commonly believed.

Yudkin's book, Clean, White, Deadly, was a success among readers. But prominent nutritionists, having teamed up with food manufacturers, destroyed his reputation and career. The Yudkin hypothesis was buried, and fast became the enemy of society number one. We spoke in more detail about this scientific injustice in the article "A Sweet Conspiracy: A History of a Deadly Scientific Error".

Today, there is enough open data and studies confirming that excessive consumption of sugar has negative consequences. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that you limit your daily sugar intake to 50 g per day (4 tablespoons, a little more than at a Coca-Cola jar). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends limiting yourself to 2 tablespoons per day.

But what if you eat more than the recommended sugar intake? Let's see what the latest scientific studies say about this.

1. Caries

Caries occurs when oral bacteria eat simple sugars.SN Wagoner, TA Marshall, F. Qian. As a result of their vital activity, acid is formed that destroys tooth enamel, and then soft dentin - the tissue that the tooth consists of. Therefore, the recommendations of dentists regarding the use of sugar are much stricter than in popular diets.

2. The constant feeling of hunger

The hormone leptin tells your brain that you are full. But fructose prevents leptin from entering the brain and creates a feeling of hunger.

In people with leptin resistance, the brain does not receive the desired signal, so it is more difficult for them to control their appetite.

Rat studies have shown Alexandra Shapiro, Wei Mu, Carlos Roncal. Fructose-induced leptin resistance exacerbates weight gain in response to subsequent high-fat feeding that animals that consumed fructose produced more leptin than usual. Therefore, the body's sensitivity to it decreased. When fructose was removed from the rat diet, leptin levels returned to normal.

3. Weight gain

In addition to a sedentary lifestyle, there is another proven way to quickly and confidently gain extra pounds: make sugar one of the main products in your diet.

Sweets have a lot of calories, but not enough to satisfy hunger.

Scientists from New Zealand conducted a study Lisa Te Morenga, Simonette Mallard, Jim Mann. Among adult men, they tried to find a connection between overweight and other factors: age, total calorie intake, sugar, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and smoking. The strongest link was found between weight gain and sugar intake. So if you want to lose weight, first give up sugar.

4. Impairment of insulin susceptibility

When you eat a lot of foods high in sugar, like doughnuts for breakfast, your body needs more insulin, a hormone that helps convert food to energy. But when insulin levels are constantly high, the body gets used to it and becomes less sensitive to it. This leads to an increase in blood glucose.

Scientists quickly caused insulin resistance in rats, giving them food with a very high sugar content Sharon S. Elliott, Nancy L. Keim, Judith S. Stern. Fructose, weight gain, and insulin resistance syndrome.

Symptoms of insulin susceptibility disorder include fatigue, a constant feeling of hunger, blurred consciousness, and high blood pressure. Fat begins to accumulate in the abdomen. Most people usually do not notice their insulin resistance until it goes into diabetes.

5. Diabetes

At the beginning of 2014, 3.96 million people were diagnosed with this in Russia, while the real numbers are much higher (according to unofficial estimates, the number of patients is more than 11 million).

In one experiment, Malik, BM Popkin, GA Bray. Scientists tracked health indicators in 51 thousand people between 1991 and 1999. It turned out that people who drank a lot of sweetened drinks - lemonade, tea, energy drinks - had a higher risk of diabetes. Scientists who conducted a similar study among 310 thousand participants came to the same conclusion.

6. Obesity

If you drink a glass of sweet lemonade every day, you have every chance of gaining about 6 kilograms of weight per year.

Each additional glass of soda can lead to obesity.

Of course, it is likely that people who drink a glass of lemonade daily do not consume more calories than a person needs per day. But, as a rule, "empty calories" contribute to excessive consumption of food in general.

7. Hepatic failure

The need to process large amounts of fructose can lead to stress and inflammation of the liver. Therefore, an excess of fructose is the main reason for the development of the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

In people with this diagnosis, fat begins to accumulate throughout the liver. Scientists have found that, as a rule, they drink more lemonade than the average personShira Zelber-Sagi, Dorit Nitzan-Kaluski, Rebecca Goldsmith. Long term nutritional intake and the risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Nevertheless, scientists were not able to determine exactly what is the main cause of the disease - sugar or excess weight (which, as we have already found out, often appears due to sugar).

Most people with the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease usually do not pay attention to the symptoms and may not even suspect that they have this disease. But in some, the accumulated fat can lead to scarring in the liver, and ultimately the disease can develop to liver failure.

8. Pancreatic cancer

Some researchers argue that consuming large amounts of sugar may increase your risk of developing. Tasevska, L. Jiao, AJ Cross. Sugars in diet and risk of cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study .pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest forms of the disease.

Although other scientists disagree and argue that cancer and sugar are linked indirectly: consuming large amounts of sugar leads to obesity and diabetes, and they, in turn, affect the development of pancreatic cancer.

9. Kidney Disease

It has been suggested that excessive sugar intake can lead to kidney disease. Although today it is only a hypothesis, there are reasons for concern.

Research results Richard J. Johnson, L. Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada, Takahiko Nakagawa. The Effect of Fructose on Renal Biology and Disease . among 9,358 participants showed: the use of soft drinks and other sugary drinks may be associated with kidney disease.

A similar study was conducted on rats. The diet of rats included an excessively large amount of sugar (12 times higher than the WHO recommendations). As a result, their kidneys increased in size and functioned worse.

10. High blood pressure

Sugar can too lead to big blood pressure. In one studyMarilda Mazzali, Jeremy Hughes, Yoon-Goo Kim. Elevated Uric Acid Increases Blood Pressure in the Rat by a Novel Crystal-Independent Mechanism .4,528 adults who never had hypertension consumed 74 g of sugar every day. The risk of high pressure has increased significantly.

In another small study, the following experiment was conducted: 15 people drank 60 g of fructose. Two hours later, they experienced a sharp jump in blood pressure. This reaction can occur due to the fact that during the decomposition of fructose, a by-product is formed - uric acid, which in large quantities negatively affects blood pressure.

11. Diseases of the cardiovascular system

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Most of all, smoking and a sedentary lifestyle affect their appearance, but among the risk factors, there are also excessive sugar intake, excess weight, and diabetes.

Recent studies prove that by eating a lot of sugar, you cause irreparable harm to the health of your heart. This is especially true for women.

According to research. Yang, Z. Zhang, EW Gregg. Added sugar intake and cardiovascular diseases mortality among US adults. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which was attended by 11,733 people, has a link between sugar consumption and an increased risk of heart disease and subsequent death. Participants receiving 17 to 21% of their daily calories from sugar increased their chances of dying from heart disease to 38% compared with those who limited their calorie intake from sugar to 8% of their total intake.

12. Dependence

Despite the fact that not all doctors support the idea of ​​the existence of food dependence, this is a very real phenomenon, although somewhat different from alcohol dependence or drug addiction.

For example, the well-known fact that people trying to get rid of addiction to opioids (heroin) or just quit smoking, start to eat more sweets. One hypothesis: in this way, the brain replaces the effects of addictive substances.

Although everything can be much simpler: people get used to food that they like, and it does not matter if there is sugar or not.

13. The decrease in cognitive abilities.

Obesity and diabetes are directly related to cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, it is not surprising that new studies find a connection between excessive sugar intake and the effect of such behaviour on the brain.

Recently, scientists conducted an experiment: high-sugar foods were introduced into the diet of a group of rats. This had a negative effect on their memory, dulled emotional arousal. A similar reaction was found in the human body: a connection was found between eating foods high in fat and carbohydrates and lowering the performance of the hippocampus, the brain area responsible for memory Naderali, SH Ratcliffe, MC Dale. Obesity and Alzheimer's disease: a link between body weight and cognitive function in old age.

14. Nutrient Deficiency

When you eat too much sugar, you are likely to give up many of the nutrients your body really needs.

High-sugar foods replace natural foods — for example, soda instead of juice and milk — and thus lead to nutrient deficiencies in the body. You consume a lot of calories from sugar, but do not get enough vitamin D, calcium or potassium.

Nutrient deficiency is manifested in the form of fatigue, increased fragility of bones, muscle weakness.

A 1999 study found that people receiving 18% or more of their daily calories from sugar had the lowest levels of essential vitamins and micronutrients such as folic acid, calcium, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin CDiets of Individuals Based on Energy Intakes From Added Sugars.

15. Gout

Gout is called the "disease of the kings," because it arises from the excesses in food and drink. And although our diet has changed, this painful form of arthritis is becoming more common in different layers of society.

Typically, gout inducing foods contain high levels of purines. When purines are processed, uric acid is formed. Accumulating, it leads to gout.

But uric acid is not only formed by the decomposition of purines, but it is also a by-product of sugar metabolism. Therefore, excessive consumption of sugar increases the risk of developing gout, especially in mention K. Choi, Gary Curhan. Soft drinks, fructose consumption, and the risk of gout in men: a prospective cohort study.

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